“We are more likely to perform actions when we believe in our own competence”
Self-efficacy is a person’s belief in his/her own competence. According to Albert Bandura – who defined self-efficacy theory – this personalized belief in our ability to succeed affects our behavior. The more competent we think we are (a high level of perceived self-efficacy), the greater our intrinsic motivation to act is.
There are at least 3 types of information that enhance our self-efficacy online:
- Our own behavior: when we are successful, we become convinced that we will be successful again.
- The behavior of others: when we see others being successful with a certain behavior, we become convinced that with that same behavior, we will also be capable of success.
- Rewarding feedback; positive feedback also contributes to our idea that we will achieve our goal by continuing.
Scientific research example
Two groups of students are engaged in solving a Soma Cube puzzle. Both groups do this in 3 sessions. The only difference between the two groups is the 2nd session. Group A receives verbal praise and positive feedback in this 2nd session, whereas group B does not. Guess what happens in the (equal) 3rd session… Yep, group A solves more puzzles in the final session. Why? Raising our self-efficacy increases our intrinsic motivation to act.
Online Persuasion tips:
- Provide instant feedback on correct behavior (i.e. green checkmarks appearing when fields are filled in correctly).
- Visualize the simplicity of procedures (a progress indicator with 3 – 5 clear steps, an easy looking info graphic, etc).
- Show existing customers that have previously bought items, or taken actions.
- Use ‘how-to’ pages (and possibly videos) where you show your visitor how easy it is to act.
- Use social proof (i.e. 12,452 others bought a product with us today).
Luke Wroblewski (former Chief Design Architect [VP] at Yahoo! and Lead User Interface Designer at eBay) studied enhancing self-efficacy by providing positive feedback on a typical web registration form. This positive feedback involved displaying green check marks when a user filled in a correct answer (see video).
The form with inline validation showed compelling improvements (Luke studied 22 average users in a usability test setting):
- 22% increase in conversions
- 31% increase in reported satisfaction
- Participants strongly preferring the feedback version
One of the reasons this test result is plausible is the fact that positive feedback (green checkmarks) will have increased the perceived self-efficacy of the users and therefore the intrinsic motivation to complete the form.